Hardneck garlic (left) sets cloves around a central stalk, and the tops of the stalks are harvested as scapes.
Softneck garlic (right) lacks a central stalk, so the tops can be braided. Softneck garlic bulbs are comprised of a cluster of cloves.
Elephant garlic (rear) is actually a leek, but whatever. Elephant garlic grows well for me in Zone 6B, and the big, mild cloves are fun to have in the kitchen.